EVs; conventional HEVs; PHEVs; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; energy transmission; battery technology; FC; PV; internal EMS; EMS; energy management system
Electric vehicles (EV), as a promising way to reduce the greenhouse effect, have been researched extensively. With improvements in the areas of power electrics, energy storage and support, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) provides competitive driving range and fuel economy compared to the internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Operating with optimised control strategies or utilising the concept of the energy management system (EMS), the efficiency of the PHEV could be significantly improved. In this review paper, the operating process of the various types of EVs will be explained. Battery technology and supercapacitor technology will also be discussed as a possibility to increase the energy capacity of PHEV.