Suvarna Manik Deshmukh, Shital Bhimrao Devkar, Shrushti Sagar Ingrole, Sourabh Narahari Patil , Pritam A. Salokhe, Dr. N.B. Chougule
Heredity, Personalized medicine, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Polymorphisms.
Over the past three decades, healthcare has made significant strides in enhancing patient survival and overall quality of life. This progress can be attributed to the development of more potent and selective therapeutic drugs, as well as improved patient care services. Pharmacogenomics, a field of study, focuses on identifying an individual's genetic traits that play a role in their response to medications. What's particularly fascinating is that as scientific understanding has advanced, it has started to consider the patterns of genetic variations within specific populations, including various ethnic groups, to account for the variations observed in responses to pharmacotherapy. The word "pharmacogenomics" is used more broadly in this chapter to refer to genetic variations that are present in a patient community, such as an ethnic group, rather than in a single patient. The efficacy and potential toxicity of numerous medications are impacted by the individual variances in drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Pharmacogenomics and its forerunner, pharmacogenetics, investigate how genetic characteristics affect an individual's sensitivity to and safety from drugs. One of the primary goals of pharmacogenomics is the personalized tailoring of drugs for specific individuals according to their genetic and molecular characteristics. The field of pharmacogenomics has evolved significantly from its initial discoveries in the 1950s, which identified inherited deficiencies in drug metabolism and explained drug-related adverse effects. It now encompasses contemporary genome-wide methodologies that assess genetic variations across multiple genes. Pharmacogenomics can extend its scope to drug discovery and development, where mounting evidence indicates that genetically defined targets are associated with higher success rates in clinical development. This overview offers insights into the historical progression and contemporary uses of pharmacogenomics in patient selection, dosing, and drug development, supplemented with illustrative instances from each category. Additionally, it discusses the challenges in the field and provides a glimpse into future perspectives.
Article Details
Unique Paper ID: 161771

Publication Volume & Issue: Volume 10, Issue 6

Page(s): 96 - 106
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