Study of Ground level Enhancement Associated with Solar Output During 2009 to 2021
Sandeep Kumar Tiwari, CM Tiwari, Laxmi Tripathi, SK Sharma
Ground Level Enhancement Coronal Mass Ejection Solar Flare Solar Energetic Particle
Ground‐level enhancements (GLEs) are sudden, sharp, and short‐lived increases in cosmic ray intensities registered by neutron monitors (NM). These enhancements are known to take place during powerful solar eruptions. In the present investigation, the cosmic ray intensities registered by the Oulu neutron monitor have been studied for the period between January 2009 and October 2021. Over this span of time, increase rates of 3 GLEs have been deduced. In addition, we have studied characteristics of the 3 events associated solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and solar energetic particle (SEP) fluxes. We found that all of the 3 GLEs were associated with strong solar flares (GLE 71 associated with class M and GLE 72 &GLE 73 associated with class X), CMEs, and SEP fluxes. GLE‐associated CMEs was much faster than the average speed of non‐GLE‐associated CMEs. Although a GLE event is often associated with a fast CME, this alone does not necessarily cause the enhancement. Solar flares with strong optical signatures may sometimes cause GLE. High SEP fluxes often seem to be responsible for causing GLEs as the correlation with SEP fluxes implies.
Article Details
Unique Paper ID: 164709

Publication Volume & Issue: Volume 10, Issue 12

Page(s): 1998 - 2002
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