Effectiveness of Housing policies and their implementation strategies post Independence in India
Priyanshu Prawal Thakuria, Dr. Madhumita Roy, Dr. Arpan Dasgupta
Housing, Policy, Five Year Plan, Slum
India accounts for 18.78 million housing shortage of which 17.84 million are required only in EWS and LIG section. Projections are alarming as housing deficit would be 3 crore by 2022, in lieu of which, the aim is to provide 2 crore houses under ‘Housing for All by 2022’.. 1970’s saw the initial start but they were mostly subsidy driven approach but focus was on ameliorating the living conditions in existing slums or providing lands where beneficiaries could build their own housing. Slum housing therefore, began to be seen as housing solutions. The most important shift in housing came in 1987 when the first National Housing Policy envisioned a facilitative rather than a direct role for government - roles of private sector started being the key. Launched in 2005, it was in the JnNURM that for the first time an integrated focused program was launched that prioritized on delivering a holistic package of reforms and interventions targeting benefits to urban poor. The transition of the Indian economy from state-led industrialization to market led growth was one of the key factors that affected the evolution of the housing policies. This paper makes an attempt to examine the thinking and philosophy in the policies that highlights the changes and progressions over the various Five Year Plans by the Government. The questions like why could not the earlier schemes achieve their targets or how we think about housing, who are entitled to it and how the government should have ideally delivered the previous schemes have been discussed. The primary aim is to analyse and understand the thought process of the policy makers through this paper.