P.Bhavani, T.Vijaya Lakshmi, V.Kavya, T.V.Sowjanya, SK.Rijwana
Diabetes, Etiology, Diabetes types, Environmental factors, Treatment, Complications.
Diabetes, characterized by high blood sugar levels, arises from insufficient insulin production or ineffective insulin utilization by the body. It spans various forms, including Type 1, Type 2, and gestational diabetes, each presenting distinct etiological factors and complications. Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells, leading to absolute insulin deficiency, while Type 2 diabetes is marked by insulin resistance and progressive beta cell failure, often linked to obesity and sedentary lifestyles. Gestational diabetes emerges during pregnancy due to hormonal changes affecting insulin action, predisposing both mother and child to future health risks. Additionally, monogenic forms of diabetes, influenced by genetic mutations, further contribute to the disease's complexity. Environmental factors, such as hygiene levels, also play a significant role in diabetes prevalence, as evidenced by the hygiene hypothesis. Treatment strategies primarily involve insulin therapy and oral hypoglycemic drugs, while complementary herbal treatments gain attention for their potential benefits. Microvascular complications, including retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, pose significant health risks, while macrovascular complications such as cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, and peripheral vascular disease further exacerbate diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. Additionally, autoimmune disorders like autoimmune thyroid disease and autoimmune gastritis commonly coexist with diabetes, adding to the disease burden. Gestational diabetes presents unique challenges for both mother and child, underscoring the importance of effective management to mitigate associated risks. Understanding the multifaceted nature of diabetes and its complications is crucial for comprehensive care and prevention strategies.
Article Details
Unique Paper ID: 162968

Publication Volume & Issue: Volume 10, Issue 11

Page(s): 607 - 612
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