Different facets of Citizenship: A conceptual Study
Prof. Hanumantharaju
Citizen, Civil rights, Political rights, Subjects, Foreigners, City-state.
In the present context, citizenship implies membership of the state. In ancient Greek city-states, citizens, who actively participated in the affairs of their respective states were only regarded as citizens. To quote Aristotle, “He, who has the power to take part in the deliberative or judicial administration is the citizen of the State”. Therefore, the concept of citizenship changes with the passage of time. In ancient period, citizenship implied active and direct participation in the political affairs of the state. This is known as restricted citizenship and those citizens were conferred with special privilege. Women, manual workers, slaves and all those, who lived outside the city-state, were not given citizenship at all. The concept of restricted citizenship was possible in the ancient world, where, direct participation in the political affairs of the state was possible due to smaller geography and population. But modern states, with considerably larger geographical boundaries and population, direct participation is not possible. Hitherto, citizenship is granted to all the residents of the state without any discrimination, irrespective of whether they take direct part in the political affairs of the state or not. Infact, there is no obligation on part of citizens to take direct part in the administration of the state. Hence those, who are permanent residents of the state and those who enjoy both civil and political rights, are called as citizens. Those who enjoy only civil rights and not political rights, such as minors, criminals, insolvents, foreigners are considered only as subjects. Infact, it is the enjoyment of civil and political rights, which distinguishes citizens and foreigners. Foreigners might enjoy permanent residence or civil rights, but political rights are not given to them. Therefore, the state may ask foreigners to quit the state at any time, it his or her activities are suspected to be against the state. In few countries such as USA, Switzerland, dual or double citizenship is given, in which, a person enjoys citizenship of both state, where he or she is born as well as the citizenship of the federation.
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Unique Paper ID: 150367

Publication Volume & Issue: Volume 6, Issue 6

Page(s): 1 - 3
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