Genome Editing: A Review
Author(s):
Mitrabinda Kheti, Madalasa Kheti, Durga Rai, Mohit Kamthania
Keywords:
transcription activator-like effector nucleases
Abstract
The traditional healthcare system is at the doorstep for entering into the arena of molecular medicine. Genome editing is a recent method of making specific changes in the DNA. Editing Genomes with the Bacterial Immune System technology has emerged as a powerful technology for genome editing and is now widely used in basic biomedical research to explore gene function. This technology has been increasingly applied to the study and treatment of human diseases, by modifying human blood cells that are then put back into the body to treat several diseases as Cystic fibrosis, cancer and AIDS. The technology of genome editing involves cuts at specific DNA sequences with enzymes called engineering nucleases. Genome editing can be used to edit, remove, add or alter DNA in the genome. The enormous knowledge and ongoing research have now been able to demonstrate methodologies that can alter DNA coding. The techniques used to edit or change the genome evolved from the earlier attempts like nuclease technologies, homing endonucleases, and certain chemical methods. Molecular techniques like meganuclease, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) initially emerged as genome-editing technologies. These initial technologies suffer from lower specificity due to their off-targets side effects. Moreover, from biotechnology’s perspective, the main obstacle was to develop simple but effective delivery methods for host cell entry. Later, small RNAs, including microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA), have been widely adopted in the research laboratories to replace lab animals and cell lines. The latest discovery of CRISPR/Cas9 technology seems more encouraging by providing better efficiency, feasibility, and multi-role clinical application. This later biotechnology seem to take genome-engineering techniques to the next level of molecular engineering. This review generally discusses the various gene-editing technologies in terms of the mechanisms of action, advantages, and side effects.
Article Details
Unique Paper ID: 150104

Publication Volume & Issue: Volume 7, Issue 3

Page(s): 1 - 5
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Volume 7 Issue 3

Last Date 25 August 2020

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