Genetic Polymorphism and Possibility for Development of Breast Cancer: A Review
Author(s):
Divya Sethi, Aekansh Chaudhary, Ayushi Chaudhary, Bankey Bihari, Runjhun Mathur, Abhimanyu Kumar Jha
Keywords:
Breast cancer, genetic polymorphism, oncogenes, SNPs, tumor suppressor genes.
Abstract
Genetic polymorphism involves genetic variations. There are several types of genetic variations namely single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), small-scale insertions/deletions, polymorphic, repetitive elements, and microsatellite variation. The most common type of genetic polymorphism/variation involves variation at a single base pair i.e. single nucleotide polymorphism. There a¬re about ten million SNPs known in human genome itself. It can also be much larger and involve long stretches of DNA. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are playing an important role in various cancer progression types and are capable of serving as diagnostic tools. Variations in several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been employed as having a role in human tumorigenesis. Likewise in breast cancer genes involved are: interleukin-1, KRAS, ErbB2/HER2/neu, PIK3CA, c-myc and Cyclin D-1 (oncogenes) and p53, Rb1, PTEN, BRCA1/2, ATM and APC (tumor suppressor genes). This review describes several key oncogenes polymorphism that have been implicated in breast cancer progression. One of the most common cancers in women globally is breast cancer. The breast cancer influences over 1 million women yearly. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. As far as functionality and biochemistry are involved, genes act at different levels and have different functions at the cellular level. Also, they are normal cellular genes, likely to have important functions in normal cell growth or differentiation. Moreover, in tumors, the function or regulation of the genes is altered, due to mutations.
Article Details
Unique Paper ID: 151410

Publication Volume & Issue: Volume 7, Issue 12

Page(s): 637 - 644
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